Remember that a poem, play or a novel is
not real life – it is the result of a series of choices made by the
writer. Characters are not real people,
they are created by the writers and the writer is in charge of everything that
every character does, no matter how natural and real they may seem. What has the writer chosen to do and what are
the effects of those choices? This is
the basic question that you should be asking when writing your essays.
When writing your essay, there are, broadly speaking, five areas which you can write about:
CHARACTER & RELATIONSHIPS: how are certain
characters presented: by description, by implication, through their actions or
thoughts, or by a mixture of techniques?
How does the writer persuade us to like/sympathise with some characters
and dislike others? How do the characters develop, change and grow as the text
develops? Why do they change, or not, in the way that they do? How are their
relationships with other characters developed? How does the writer present
these developing relationships to us? Why do the relationships develop in this
way? How well does the reader get to know the characters and how credible are
they? How do the characters relate to the themes of the text?
MOTIFS & SYMBOLS: are there any noticeable motifs or
symbols in the text? How do they work? How does the author use them; to
emphasise a theme, a character, an element of the plot, to stand for an idea,
what? Do the meanings of motifs or symbols change and develop with the story?
Do they have key moments? When is that key moment? Why would the writer choose
to have it there?
NARRATIVE STYLE: what style has the writer used when
creating their text, you might consider some of the following aspects:
Narrative Voice - from whose point
of view is the story told? Does this
change? How reliable is the narrative
voice? If there are several narrators
are they equally reliable or unreliable?
Is there one main protagonist or several main characters?
Setting - this includes
cultural as well as geographical and historical setting. In a World Literature
essay this is particularly important as one of the purposes of studying works
from other countries is to make students aware of differences in cultural
attitudes. The actions of the characters in Chronicle of a Death Foretold have
to be seen in the light of Latin American society, not modern
Structure - is there a
linear or chronological development of the plot or are there flashbacks or
foreshadowing? Is the work divided into distinct parts or can it be viewed as a
whole? Is the plot circular? Are there
sub-plots? How important/effective is the ending? Has everything been revealed
by the end or are there many unanswered questions – if so does this matter?
What period of time has been covered – long or short? Are there patterns of
tension and relief?
Lit features -
such as imagery, syntax etc. can all be used to show how
a writer has conveyed his ideas.
THEMES: what are the themes that the writer is trying to
convey? What is the writer trying to say about the human condition? Is the
writer trying to make a philosophical point? How are these themes created? How
does the writer present them? How do themes link to other elements of the text
such as characters, motifs and narrative style?
You could compare the openings / endings
of two texts, the introduction of two characters, two murder scenes. What ever
it is the focus must be equally relevant to both texts. Remember interesting
students look at differences not just similarities and the most interesting
students look at differences within something that looks like a similarity.
Both Charlotte Bronte and Ibsen show how women’s lives were restricted in